- Created: 29-09-20
- Last Login: 29-09-20
Description: THE GUIDE TO SUMMER SHIRT FABRICS The aim of a shirt bought for summer might seem easy: to stay cool. But there are several variations here, and crossovers with styles and other functionality. This, then, is our substantive yet focused guide to buying a shirt fabric for the warmer months. As ever, it is not aimed at recommending specific cloths, because the mills don’t vary that much in the things discussed here – fibres, weaves and finishes. Rather, it should enable you to know whether you want a linen, a muslin or a zephyr, and why. Then you can pick what weight and colour you want. So, how do you make a cool shirting fabric? Well generally you want it to be breathable – that’s the priority, rather than being lightweight. Superfine fabrics, for example, are often lightweight. But they are also densely woven, which makes them not very breathable and so not great in warm weather. That breathability will come from three things: the fibre, the yarn or the weave. First, the fibre. Most shirtings are cotton, and this is pretty breathable and cool – certainly more than fibres like wools, cashmere or synthetics. However, linen is better. Linen is such a strong fibre that it can be woven quite loosely, making it breathable. It is also cool to the touch, because the fibre is a good conductor. (Metal feels cool for the same reason.) Linen wrinkles of course. For some, that’s part of the charm, but it might also make it too casual for smarter shirts. In that situation it’s worth turning to linen/cotton mixes, which balance the sharpness of cotton and the breathability of linen. In fact, I’d recommend linen/cotton through most of the year, because it has that breathability (but not too much) and because it looks more casual than cotton (but not too much). And while you do often need a cooler shirt in the summer, in the winter it’s easy to just wear knitwear or heavier tailoring over the top. Next, the weave. In general here you want a more open, less dense weave. So in a basic cotton, a plain weave (or broadcloth) is more open than a twill, and will breathe better. Then there are more specialist warm-weather weaves, such as zephyr. Zephyr has a square weave construction, with an almost equal number of threads per inch in warp and weft, which makes it very breathable. Specialist cotton yarns can also make a difference. So voile, for example, uses a high-twist yarn. This gives the yarn extra strength (like linen) and enables it to be woven more openly. Muslin, on the other hand, uses a normal yarn but a very lightweight one. This makes it softer, but also quite liable to wrinkle, and therefore not as smart. Both voile and muslin are more commonly used in women’s clothing. What Is Mesh Fabric? There are a few different versions of mesh fabric, but this type of fabric is typified by its lightweight heft and permeable texture. Unlike most types of fabric, which feature closely-woven textures, mesh is woven loosely, which results in thousands of tiny holes being present in each mesh garment. The idea of mesh has been around for thousands of years; for instance, every type of net in existence is made from mesh, and this material has also been used to make items like hammocks. However, it wasn't until the end of the 19th century that textile innovators started using mesh for apparel. Mesh fabric is made with a variety of different techniques depending on the type of fiber from which it is composed. While nylon and polyester are very similar in a number of ways, polyester was developed a few decades after nylon, which means that the production of this synthetic material follows significantly more advanced manufacturing processes. Though the processes used to make these two types of fabric fibers differ, for each type of fiber, the process begins with the refining of petroleum oil. Polyamide monomers are then extracted from this oil, and these monomers are then reacted with various forms of acid to make polymers. Lining Fabric for Clothing Lining fabric refers to a group of materials inserted into various garments, from skirts and shorts to dresses, jackets and coats. Such fabrics can be made of natural or synthetic fibers and range from sheer to opaque. While most of them are produced in solid colors, you can still find lots of patterned lining materials. This F. A. Q. section covers the most popular questions about lining fabrics, their types, and properties. The purpose of lining fabric is to make your garment more wearable, long-lasting and comfortable. They are usually lightweight and have a soft or silky texture. Not all items need to be lined, though. When choosing the appropriate lining for a project, one needs to pay attention to the stretch factor. If the garment is not stretchy, e.g. a cotton shirt or a wool jacket, non-stretch lining fabric is ok. But if the item is made with elastic materials like jersey, tulle or stretch satin, the lining one ends up choosing should be stretchy as well. Blended or inlaid conductive fibers The mechanism of the first two methods is to increase the moisture regain rate of the fabric, reduce the insulation, and accelerate the electrostatic leakage. Therefore, if the processing effect is not durable or not significant in a dry environment or after repeated washing, it is usually applied to ordinary clothing fabrics. Only the third method can permanently and efficiently solve the static electricity problem of textiles. It is an anti-static fabric woven from a new type of conductive yarn (or metal fiber blended yarn). The addition of conductive wire (yarn) is divided into two kinds of inlaid and interwoven (specifically twill, according to customer requirements). The fabric has good durability, anti-static, dustproof and other properties. Therefore, it is widely used in the production of anti-static work clothes. Application of anti-static fabric Anti static fabric is fabric that has undergone anti-static processing and is widely used in the workwear of explosive industries such as petroleum industry, mining and smelting industry, chemical industry, coal mine, gas station, liquefied gas station, oil tanker, fireworks and firecrackers, and atomic energy, aerospace, Weapons, precision instruments, microelectronics, automobiles and other static sensitive industries, and other industries, such as: food, medicine and other industrial work clothes that require high cleanliness. The conductive wire in the conductive fabric is mainly embedded in the back of the fabric to facilitate the appearance and smoothness of the fabric. The back of the fabric is a semiconductor and the front of the fabric is an insulator. Therefore, after the garment is finished, the static electricity generated by the friction between the clothing and the human body is mainly eliminated, and the static electricity generated by friction with external equipment cannot be eliminated. There is still a charge accumulation on the front of the garment. Since the blended fabric is made by adding conductive fibers to the yarn during the weaving process, the front and back of the fabric are both semiconductors, and the positive and negative charges on the surface of the fabric can be conducted and cancel each other, which can quickly and evenly eliminate the body and clothing. The static electricity, and the static electricity generated on the surface of the clothing in contact with the outside, the clothing has no charge accumulation. Waterproof Breathable Fabrics Waterproof fabric completely prevents the penetration and absorption of liquid water in, in contrast to water-repellent fabric, which only delays the penetration of water. Traditionally, fabric was made waterproof by coating it with a continuous layer of impervious flexible material. The first coating materials used were animal fat, wax and hardened vegetable oils. Nowadays synthetic polymers such as polyvinylchloride (PVC) and polyurethane are used. Conventional polymers coatings are considered to be more uncomfortable to wear than water-repellent fabric, as they are relatively stiff and do not allow the escape of perspiration vapour. Consequently they are now used for emergency rainwear. Water-repellent fabric is more comfortable to wear but its water-resistant properties are short lived. Coating Fabrics for Men and Women Coating fabrics are designed to protect your body from cold, wind and rain during early spring, autumn and winter seasons. Coat fabric comes in a variety of weights and finishes, from lightweight materials for cooler weather to heavy cloths that are up to the challenge even on the most freezing day. In this article we’re going to cover the most popular types of coat fabrics used for casual and special occasion coats and jackets. While one can definitely buy a ready-made piece, sometimes finding the perfect one seems almost impossible. Lightweight materials include jacquard, tweed and boucle, thin wool fabrics, velvet, etc. Some of them can be made into stylish outerwear to be worn on top of an elegant dress or a mind-blowing two-piece suit. Medium weight fabrics comprise denser wool materials and jacquards, cashmere, various wool blends. Properly lined or quilted, they make all kinds of coats, jackets and capes that are a pleasure to wear in the demi-season. Heavy coat fabrics are created to keep you super warm and comfortable in snowy and otherwise severe winters. The most popular ones are 100% wool materials, wool blends, furs and padded puffer fabrics. Now, let’s dive deeper into the types of fibers you should have your eyes open for when choosing a coat material. What Is Fleece Fabric? When you read the word fleece, the first thing you may think of is sheep. Interestingly, fleece fabric doesn’t come from sheep’s wool at all. Rather than wool, fleece fabric is a form of synthetic fabric. This means these warm, soft, and cozy garments are man-made. They’re usually made from polyester. Sometimes, it’s referred to as polar fleece or polyester fleece. Introduction Of Home Textile Home textile is a branch of technical textile comprising application of textiles in household purposes. Home textiles are nothing but an internal environment, which deals with internal spaces and their furnishings. Home textiles are mainly used for their functional and aesthetic properties which provides us the mood and also gives mental relaxation to the people. Definition Of Home Textile Home textiles can be defined as the textiles used for home furnishing. It consists of a various range of functional as well as decorative products used mainly for decorating our houses. The fabrics are used for home textiles consists of both natural and man-made fibres. Sometimes we also blend these fibres to make the fabrics stronger. Generally, home textiles are produced by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting, or pressing fibers together. Different Types Of Home Textile Products A considerable portion of home furnishings consists of textiles. A number of these furnishings are typical in households and are made according to certain general methods of construction and composition. The basic items may be grouped as Sheets and Pillowcases, Blankets, Terry towels, Table cloths, and carpets and Rugs. Jacquard Fabrics Review Jacquard fabric is a type of cloth featuring an intricate pattern woven into the warp on a special mechanical loom, rather than printed on the surface. It was a French weaver Joseph-Marie Jacquard who invented this technology in 1804, so the jacquard fabric was named after him. These fabrics are available in a variety of compositions and weights and serve various purposes. Lightweight jacquards are often picked for spring and summer apparel, whereas heavy cloths have their say in colder seasons. Any jacquard fabric is all about the pattern, which looks that unique due to the way it is applied. Very often, if you look at the back of the cloth, long floats can be found; these are threads used to produce the pattern, and it tells you straight away that you are dealing with jacquard.
Publish Date: 28-10-21
Publish Date: 28-10-21
Description: Mystery of the wheelie suitcase: how gender stereotypes held back the history of invention In 1970 an American ABS luggage executive unscrewed four castors from a wardrobe and fixed them to a suitcase. Then he put a strap on his contraption and trotted it gleefully around his house. This was how Bernard Sadow invented the world’s first rolling suitcase. It happened roughly 5,000 years after the invention of the wheel and barely one year after Nasa managed to put two men on the surface of the moon using the largest rocket ever built. We had driven an electric rover with wheels on a foreign heavenly body and even invented the hamster wheel. So why did it take us so long to put wheels on suitcases? This has become something of a classic mystery of innovation. Nobel prize-winning economist Robert Shiller discusses the matter in two different books, Narrative Economics and The New Financial Order. He sees it as an archetypal example of how innovation can be a very slow-footed thing: how the “blindingly obvious” can stare us expectantly in the face for an eternity. Nassim Nicholas Taleb is another world-renowned thinker who has pondered the mystery. Having lugged heavy suitcases through airports and railway stations for years, he was astonished by his own unquestioning acceptance of the status quo. Taleb sees the rolling suitcase as a parable of how we often tend to ignore the simplest solutions. As humans, we strive for the difficult, grandiose and complex. Technology – such as having wheels on suitcases – may appear obvious in hindsight, but that doesn’t mean it was obvious. Similarly, in management and innovation literature, the late invention of the rolling suitcase often appears as somewhat of a warning. A reminder of our limitations as innovators. But there is one factor that these thinkers have missed. I stumbled upon it when I was researching my book on women and innovation. I found a photo in a newspaper archive of a woman in a fur coat pulling a suitcase on wheels. It made me stop in my tracks because it was from 1952, 20 years before the official “invention” of the rolling suitcase. Fascinated, I kept looking. Soon, a completely different story about our limitations as innovators was rolling out. The modern suitcase was born at the end of the 19th century. When mass tourism first took off, Europe’s large railway stations were inundated with porters, who would help passengers with their bags. But, by the middle of the 20th century, the porters were dwindling in number, and passengers increasingly carried their own PP luggage. Advertisements for products applying the technology of the wheel to the suitcase can be found in British newspapers as early as the 1940s. These are not suitcases on wheels, exactly, but a gadget known as “the portable porter” – a wheeled device that can be strapped on to a suitcase. But it never really caught on. In 1967, a Leicestershire woman wrote a sharply worded letter to her local newspaper complaining that a bus conductor had forced her to buy an additional ticket for her rolling suitcase. The conductor argued that “anything on wheels should be classed as a pushchair”. She wondered what he would have done if she had boarded the bus wearing roller-skates. Would she be charged as a passenger or as a pram? The woman in the fur coat and the Leicestershire woman on the bus are the vital clues to this mystery. Suitcases with wheels existed decades before they were “invented” in 1972, but were considered niche products for women. And that a product for women could make life easier for men or completely disrupt the whole global ABS+PC luggage industry was not an idea the market was then ready to entertain. Resistance to the rolling suitcase had everything to do with gender. Sadow, the “official” inventor, described how difficult it was to get any US department store chains to sell it: “At this time, there was this macho feeling. Men used to carry on luggage for their wives. It was … the natural thing to do, I guess.” Two assumptions about gender were at work here. The first was that no man would ever roll a suitcase because it was simply “unmanly” to do so. The second was about the mobility of women. There was nothing preventing a woman from rolling a suitcase – she had no masculinity to prove. But women didn’t travel alone, the industry assumed. If a woman travelled, she would travel with a man who would then carry her bag for her. This is why the industry couldn’t see any commercial potential in the rolling suitcase. It took more than 15 years for the invention to go mainstream, even after Sadow had patented it. In the 1984 Hollywood film Romancing the Stone, a rolling suitcase is featured as something of a silly feminine thing. Kathleen Turner’s character insists on bringing her wheeled suitcase to the jungle, to the great annoyance of Michael Douglas, who is trying to save them from villains, while tracking down a legendary gigantic emerald. Then, in 1987, US pilot Robert Plath created the modern cabin bag. He turned Sadow’s suitcase on its side and made it smaller. In the 1980s, more women started to travel alone, without a man to carry their spinner luggage set. The wheeled suitcase carried with it a dream of greater mobility for women. Bit by bit, the rolling suitcase became a feature of the modern businessman’s arsenal. We forgot all about the intense and very gendered resistance the product had encountered. But we shouldn’t – because this story carries some important lessons about innovation that we need to hear today. We couldn’t see the genius of the wheeled suitcase because it didn’t align with our prevailing views on masculinity. In hindsight, we find this bizarre. How could the predominant view on masculinity turn out to be more stubborn than the market’s desire to make money? How could the crude idea that men must carry heavy things prevent us from seeing the potential in a product that would come to transform an entire global industry? But is it really that surprising? The world is full of people who would rather die than let go of certain notions of masculinity. Doctrines like “real men don’t eat vegetables”, “real men don’t get check-ups for minor things” and “real men don’t have sex with condoms” kill very real men every single day. Our society’s ideas on masculinity are some of our most unyielding ideas, and our culture often values the preservation of certain concepts of masculinity over life itself. In this context, such ideas are certainly powerful enough to hold back technological innovation. The rolling suitcase is far from the only example. When electric cars first emerged in the 1800s they came to be seen as “feminine” simply because they were slower and less dangerous. This held back the size of the electric car market, especially in the US, and contributed to us building a world for petrol-driven cars. When electric starters for petrol-driven cars were developed they were also considered to be something for the ladies. The assumption was that only women were demanding the type of safety measures that meant being able to start your car without having to crank it at risk of injury. Ideas about gender similarly delayed our efforts to meet the technological challenges of producing closed cars because it was seen as “unmanly” to have a roof on your car. Assumptions about masculinity play a similar role today in relation to innovation around sustainability. For example, we often think that consumption of meat and preferences for large cars – instead of travel by public transport – are essential features of masculinity. This holds innovation back and prevents us from imagining new ways of living powered by new technologies. Perhaps in the future we will laugh at our current struggle to get many men to adopt a more environmentally friendly lifestyle, in the same way that we shake our heads at how unthinkable it was for a man to wheel his suitcase 40 years ago. Ideas about gender also limit what we even count as technology. We talk about “the iron age” and “the bronze age”. We could also talk about “the ceramic age” and “the flax age”, since these technologies were just as important. But technologies associated with women are not considered to be inventions in the same way that those associated with men are. Gender answers the riddle of why it took 5,000 years for us to put wheels on suitcases. It’s perhaps easy to think that we wouldn’t make similar mistakes today. But many of the structural problems are still here. We still have male-dominated industries not interested in dealing with the fact that women influence 80% of all consumer decisions. Products are still being built and designed with only men in mind and we have a financial system that stubbornly refuses to see the potential of women’s ideas. Today, less than 1% of UK venture capital goes to all-female teams. Among the very few women who do get funded, a very large majority are white. Of course, venture capital isn’t everything – there are other ways to fund and scale innovation – but the fact that men, more or less, have a monopoly is certainly a symptom of an economy where women’s ideas are not heard. The many economists and thinkers who have thought about how we didn’t put wheels on suitcases until 1972 were right to note that this story is a symptom of a larger problem. It was just a slightly different problem than the one they imagined it to be. This article was amended on 8 July 2021. Bernard Sadow invented the rolling suitcase in 1970, not 1972, which was the year the invention was patented. Mother of Invention: How Good Ideas Get Ignored in an Economy Built for Men by Katrine Mar?al is published by William Collins (￡18.99). To support the Guardian order your copy at guardianbookshop.com. Delivery charges may apply. More than 1.5 million readers, from 180 countries, have recently taken the step to support us financially – keeping us open to all, and fiercely independent. With no shareholders or billionaire owner, we can set our own agenda and provide trustworthy journalism that’s free from commercial and political influence, offering a counterweight to the spread of misinformation. When it’s never mattered more, we can investigate and challenge without fear or favour. Unlike many others, Guardian journalism is available for everyone to read, regardless of what they can afford to pay. We do this because we believe in information equality. Greater numbers of people can keep track of global events, understand their impact on people and communities, and become inspired to take meaningful action. We aim to offer readers a comprehensive, international perspective on critical events shaping our world – from the Black Lives Matter movement, to the new American administration, Brexit, and the world's slow emergence from a global pandemic. We are committed to upholding our reputation for urgent, powerful reporting on the climate emergency, and made the decision to reject advertising from fossil fuel companies, divest from the oil and gas industries, and set a course to achieve net zero emissions by 2030.
Publish Date: 27-10-21
Description: CNC Milling vs. CNC Turning: All You Need to Know CNC machining is a rapid manufacturing process that turns digital 3D designs into plastic or metal parts by selectively cutting away material. Many companies require CNC machining service to make parts and prototypes, and many industries use the versatile technology. But CNC machining comes in various forms. Although all CNC machining technologies follow a similar workflow — software turns the digital design into machine instructions, which instruct the CNC machine to cut material — the hardware for cutting material can differ greatly between machines. This article discusses the main differences between two of those machines: CNC mills and CNC turning (or lathes centers). In the article we discuss the essential features of CNC milling parts and CNC turning while also presenting the main advantages of each technology and a selection of common parts that companies can manufacture using each process. CNC milling is one of the most common CNC machining service, and machinists can use it to make a wide variety of CNC machined parts. Prototype companies often use CNC mills to make one-off functional prototypes. CNC mills use computer instructions to move a rapidly rotating cutting tool along three or more axes. When the spinning cutting tool makes contact with the workpiece, it removes material in a controlled manner. The cutting tool makes a succession of passes against the surface of the workpiece until the workpiece resembles the desired part. Most CNC mills keep the workpiece stationary, holding it down on the machine bed with a vice. However, multi-axis CNC mills may rock or rotate the workpiece to create a greater number of cutting angles. This allows the machinist to create more complex parts without having to manually reorient the workpiece. Providers of rapid prototyping services use CNC machining because it is a one-stop, end-to-end process with short lead times. CNC turning is a form of CNC machining that machinists use to make rounded, cylindrical, and conical parts. Although it is less versatile than CNC milling, it is one of the most popular CNC machining services and rapid prototyping services. Machines that carry out CNC turning parts are called CNC lathes or CNC turning centers. They are different from CNC mills in that they rapidly rotate the workpiece in a chuck but do not rotate the cutting tool. The cutting tool, affixed to a turret, moves towards the spinning workpiece under computer instructions and removes material where necessary. A CNC lathe can cut the outside of the workpiece or bore through the inside to create tubular CNC machined parts. The turret of the machine may have multiple cutting tools that can be individually engaged as required. Advantages of CNC Milling CNC mills offer numerous advantages to manufacturers and prototype companies. Unlike lathes, mills are versatile machines capable of creating a range of different shapes. Furthermore, a variety of cutting tools can be used to serve different operations such as roughing and end-milling. Although they are manufacturing machines in their own right, mills are also useful for post-machining. For example, they can be used to add details to turned, molded, or 3D printed parts. CNC milling is also fast, repeatable, and inexpensive in low volumes — partly because it does not require tooling. It is therefore found among manufacturing services and rapid prototyping services. Advantages of CNC Turning The biggest advantage of CNC turning is its ability to create round profiles. It is much more difficult to achieve perfect roundness using other CNC machining parts services like CNC milling or CNC routing. CNC turning is also highly accurate, which makes it a valuable technology for boring holes of precise dimensions with set tolerances. CNC milling and CNC turning can be combined to reap the benefits of both processes. In most cases, CNC turning takes place first, allowing the machinist to mill further (asymmetrical) details on the part. As a rule of thumb, CNC turning is best for parts with round, cylindrical, or conical profiles, and aluminium CNC milling parts is best for everything else. If in doubt, a machining expert can guide you to the right CNC machining service for your unique project. That being said, CNC milling and CNC turning can be combined to good effect. If a part has a predominantly round shape but also requires asymmetrical cuts or features, CNC milling can follow CNC turning in sequence. And although it is less common, CNC turning can also follow CNC milling — if a boxy or irregular-shaped part requires a large hole bored through its center, for example. Finally, sometimes you don’t have to choose: CNC milling-turning centers integrate both technologies into a single production device. What is a CNC Milling Machine and how does it work? How do CNC milling machines compare to CNC Lathes? When do you need such a CNC machine tool? Focused on milling – the process of machining using rotating tools to gradually remove material from a workpiece – CNC milling machines are a mainstay for factories around the world. These machine tools make use of a variety of cutting tools along one or more axes to remove material from a workpiece through mechanical means. CNC milling machines are often used in a variety of manufacturing industries: from industries like aerospace, shipping, automobiles, and oil drilling / pumping and refining, to medical, FMC manufacturing, and precision engineering sectors. Also called CNC Machining Centers, the more advanced CNC milling machines can operate along multiple-axis. These may be fitted with automatic tool changers, advanced machine coolant systems, pallet changers, and advanced software to improve the efficiency and accuracy of machining processes. CNC Milling Machines are machine operated cutting tools that are programmed and managed by Computer Numerical Control (CNC) systems to accurately remove materials from a workpiece. The end result of the machining process is a specific part or product that is created using a Computer Aided Design (CAD) software. These machine tools are normally equipped with a main spindle and three-linear-axes to position or move the part to be machined. More advanced versions may have a 4th or 5th rotational axis to allow for more precise shapes of varying dimensions and sizes to be machined. CNC milling machines / machining centers normally employ a process of material cutting termed milling or machining – the milling process involves securing a piece of pre-shaped material (also known as the workpiece) to a fixture attached to a platform in the milling machine. A rapidly rotating tool (or a series of interchangeable tools) is then applied to the material to remove small chips of the material until the desired shape for the part is achieved. Depending on the material used for the part, as well as the complexity of the machined part, varying axes, cutting head speeds, and feed rates may be applied. Milling is normally used to machine parts that are not symmetrical from an axial perspective. These parts may have unique curvatures or surface contours, which may require a combination of drilling & tapping, grooves, slots, recesses, pockets and holes to work on them. They may also form parts of the tooling for other manufacturing processes – for example in the fabrication of 3D moulds. In the past, milling machines were manually operated. Operators had to use a combination of machines with different tools to machine a more complex part or product. Or they had to use various settings on one machine just to complete the job. With the advancement of technology such a CNC controls and Automatic Tool Changers (ATCs), greater efficiency, flexibility and speed can be achieved – even for more convoluted parts. The provision of digital readouts and measuring systems has also improved the accuracy of CNC machining processes. To cater to manufacturers that require the flexibility of “High Mix, Low Volume” (HMLV) or “small batch” production, CNC machining centers can be fitted with Pallet Changers or other automation solutions to form part of a Flexible Manufacturing Cell (FMC) or Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS). This allows such machines to cater to a wide variety of machining demands and needs. The general principle for a CNC milling machine or CNC machining center is that the part to be machined is clamped on top of the machine table. It could be clamped directly on the table itself, or held in place by a vice or fixture. The spindle (moving section) including the cutting tool is then either vertically or horizontally positioned. In that configuration, the tool can reach various X-Y-Z positions on the work piece and commence cutting and shaping actions. As it does so, the work piece or part may either be fixed, mounted, or moved/positioned by the table in a linear direction to the spindle with the cutting tool. This allows material to be removed according to the desired shape needed for the machined part. For a CNC milling machine (aka CNC machining center), the work piece is fixed or mounted in position using a vice or fixture while the cutting tool is manoeuvred on top of or around the piece. Material is then gradually removed using cutting tools or drills which rotate at high speed with varying feed rates along two or more axes. In the case of a CNC Lathe (aka CNC Turning Center), however, the work piece (usually cylindrical) is mounted on a rotating chuck or on the main spindle. It is then “turned” (hence the name turning Center) or rotated along a main axis while the cutting tool located in a rotational or positioning turret would move in a parallel direction to the piece. Material is then removed using stationery cutting tools. Thus, a CNC milling machine use a spinning tool with a stationery work piece, whereas a CNC Lathe would involve spinning the material to be worked on by a stationery cutting tool.
Publish Date: 27-10-21
Description: The Importance of Structural Steel In Constructing Buildings Structural steel has become one of the most prevalent construction materials of the century, often seen as an extremely important component of modern buildings and housing. According to the World Steel Association, over 1,600 million tonnes were produced in 2016, 197 million more than the previous year. It’s become viable for any kind of project and offers several benefits, which many building plans rely on for structural safety. Availability The widespread adoption of steel has made it easy to find, both as a raw alloy and pre-made components. Fabricated parts will often be openly sold by suppliers (with many factories selling both locally and overseas), allowing beams and frames to be purchased directly. Thanks to this, companies can work under tighter deadlines and access a supply of steel parts anywhere in the world. Steel parts can be ordered as soon as the architectural plan is agreed on, saving time that would be spent waiting for them to arrive at the site. This provides extra time to check measurements and find suitable storage, issues that could normally delay construction by several hours. Weight Its lightweight makes steel easy to transport over land and lift via a crane, reducing the amount of fuel wasted getting it to the site. In addition, this can make buildings far easier to take down: a prototype ProLogic warehouse was built at Heathrow to demonstrate how over 80% of the entire structure was reusable, which could be disassembled in a fraction of the time an average warehouse would take. Low weight can aid in moving and rebuilding structures, as shown with the 9 Cambridge Avenue warehouse relocation: the warehouse itself was dismantled and rebuilt 1 mile away, using almost no steel except the existing components. This added mobility and versatility makes steel a very desirable building material for structures that have extra land for expansion. Sustainability As the desire for eco-friendly buildings increases, steel will become more convenient for construction projects. It can easily be recycled and doesn’t need to be permanently disposed of, so old buildings or temporary supports can be repurposed into new projects as needed. Roughly 97.5% of all steel from UK demolition sites is recovered and reused, according to data gathered by Steel Construction. Recovered steel components that haven’t been damaged can be re-used in other projects, removing the cost of getting the alloy melted down and re-cut as a new part. If a building is being demolished and rebuilt, existing parts could be stripped out and repurposed to save money kept in storage for future projects or simply sold to another company as components (or raw alloy, if sold back to a steel fabrication company). Strength Due to its high strength-to-weight ratio, less steel is needed in a single support or beam, reducing material costs and improving its sustainable nature. It can withstand strong physical impacts and forces, keeping building occupants safe, but won’t wear away or need to be replaced afterwards. This extra strength can be retained through the design, rather than the amount of steel used. Steel I-beams are often used in modern construction since they’re lighter, stronger and less wasteful than any wooden beam of the same size. The natural fire and rust resistance of alloy steel makes it viable for exterior structures, such as fire escapes or balcony supports – MIMA also suggest possible use as external walls to contain insulating materials. Price Modern regulations are very specific about how efficient construction should be: these rules often have the added benefit of cutting maintenance or material costs in the long run. Concrete remains more consistent compared to the varying price of steel, but the costs of repairing and reinforcing a concrete beam or pillar will usually make steel cheaper over a building’s lifetime. As mentioned earlier, steel is entirely reusable. It retains all of its properties, so a large amount of recovered steel could drastically reduce the cost of a new structure. A small study on the cost of a London office building revealed that steel composite was roughly 8% cheaper than concrete slabs across all ten storeys. Steel constructions are widely used in several applications such as structures for buildings, stores, factories, and power plants. The scope of the research is to study a methodology to reduce the weight and the cost related to big frame steel structure warehouse during the early design phase, which is the phase where most of the project layout is defined. The main aim of this paper is the development of a platform-tool to support the automatic optimization of a steel structure using virtual prototyping tools and genetic algorithms. The focus is on the design of heavy steel structures for oil & gas power plants. This work describes in detail the design methodology and estimates the weight saving related to the re-design process of a test case structure. The design cases considered in the paper are those relevant to the operating. Steel structure workshop modular residence is the outstanding residential industrialization. It has many advantages, such as the low whole cost, high resource recovery, a high degree of industrialization. This paper compares the comprehensive benefits of steel structural in modular buildings with prefabricated reinforced concrete residential from economic benefits, environmental benefits, social benefits and technical benefits by the method of entropy evaluation. Finally, it is concluded that the comprehensive benefits of steel structural in modular buildings is better than that of prefabricated reinforced concrete residential. The conclusion of this study will provide certain reference significance to the development of steel structural in modular buildings in China. In this paper, various moment-resisting steel frames (MRSFs) are subjected to 30 narrow-band motions scaled at different ground motion intensity levels in terms of spectral acceleration at first mode of vibration in order to perform incremental dynamic analysis for peak and residual interstory drift demands. The results are used to compute the structural reliability of the steel frames by means of hazard curves for peak and residual drifts. It is observed that the structures exceed the threshold residual drift of 0.5%, which is perceptible to human occupants, and it could lead to human discomfort according to recent investigations. For this reason, posttensioned connections (PTCs) are incorporated into the steel frames in order to improve the structural reliability. The results suggest that the annual rate of exceedance of peak and residual interstory drift demands are reduced with the use of PTC. Thus, the structural reliability of the steel frames with PTC is superior to that of the MRSFs. In particular, the residual drift demands tend to be smaller when PTCs are incorporated in the high-rise steel structure. Currently, most of the seismic design regulations recommend the use of maximum interstory drift as the main engineering demand parameter. Nevertheless, earthquake field reconnaissance has evidenced that residual drift demands after an earthquake play an important role in the seismic performance of a structure. For example, several dozen damaged reinforced concrete structures in Mexico City had to be demolished after the 1985 Michoacan earthquake because of the technical difficulties to straighten and to repair buildings with large permanent drifts . Okada et al. reported that several low-rise RC buildings suffered light structural damage but experienced relatively large residual deformations as a consequence of the 1995 Hyogo-Ken Nambu earthquake even though they had sufficient deformation capacity. After examining 12 low-to-mid-rise steel office buildings (particularly 10 with structural system based on steel moment-resisting frames) structurally damaged and leaned after the same earthquake, Iwata et al. highlighted that the cost of repair of leaned steel buildings linearly increased as the maximum and roof residual drift increased. Based on their study, the authors suggested that steel buildings should be limited to maximum and roof residual drift about 1.4% and 0.9%, respectively, to satisfy a repairability limit state that meets both technical and economical constraints. More recently, a field investigation in Japan indicated that a residual interstory drift of about 0.5% is perceptible for building occupants . Bojórquez and Ruiz-García by comparing peak and residual drift demand hazard curves have observed that if steel frames exhibit peak drift demands about 3%, they could experience residual drifts larger than 0.5%, which is the threshold residual drift that could be tolerable to human occupants, and it could lead to human discomfort when subjected to narrow-band earthquake ground motions of high intensity. Therefore, several researchers have demonstrated that the estimation of residual drift demands should also play an important role during the design of new buildings and the evaluation of the seismic structural performance of existing buildings . In the present study, motivated by the need to reduce peak and residual interstory drift demands, PTCs are incorporated into various MRSFs. Posttensioned steel moment-resisting frames are structural systems proposed in recent years as an appropriate alternative to welded connections of moment-resisting frames in seismic zones . They are designed to prevent brittle fractures in the area of the nodes of steel frames, which can cause severe reduction in their ductility capacity, as occurred in many cases during the 1994 Northridge and the 1995 Kobe earthquakes. The philosophy of structures with PTC is that under an intense earthquake motion, beams and columns remain essentially elastic concentrating the damage on the energy dissipating elements, which can be easily replaced at low cost. Moreover, they provide capacity of energy dissipation and self-centering which can significantly reduce the residual demands. The structural performance of the selected MRSFs is compared with the structures with PTC through incremental dynamic analysis and the estimation of the structural reliability of the frames in terms of peak and residual interstory drift demands. With this aim, four MRSFs and the same structures with PTC (here named FPTC frames with posttensioned connections) are subjected to 30 long-duration ground motions recorded at the lake zone of Mexico City where most of the damages were found in buildings as a consequence of the 1985 Michoacan earthquake. In general, it is observed that the structural reliability of the steel frames with PTC is superior to that of the MRSFs. In particular, the residual drift demands tend to be smaller than 0.5% (which is perceptible for building occupants) when PTCs are incorporated into the steel structure buildings.
Publish Date: 26-10-21
Description: There are few industries out there with as much potential to develop loyal, die-hard customers as beauty and cosmetics. Beauty products are a staple in bathroom cabinets around the world; whether a person is going for an “I woke up like this” look or the avant garde “makeup is art you wear on your face” feel, just about every woman (not to mention tons of men!) use beauty products on the daily. Which means if you own a beauty or cosmetics line, the potential for some serious business is there. But it also means if you want to grab that business and take it for yourself, you’re going to need to find a way to break through the clutter, jump off the shelf at Sephora, and tell your ideal customer “THIS is the lipstick for you!” And the best way to do that is your packaging. Your packaging is the first thing the beauty die-hards you want to turn into customers are going to see. If your packaging grabs their attention and speaks to what they’re looking for, they’re likely to take your product home and give it a try. If not? It’s likely to gather dust on the shelf. But how, exactly, do you design the kind of packaging that makes your ideal customer scream “I need that blush yesterday?” Never fear, 99designs is here with all the information you need to design packaging that stands out on the shelf and gets your product into your customer’s bag (and, eventually, on their face). Just as important as your customer’s identity is your identity. What’s your branding? Are you dark and edgy (like Urban Decay)? Simple and classic (like Bobbi Brown)? Luxurious (like Dior)? Accessible (like Wet n Wild)? Who you are as a brand—and the personality you want to portray to your customers—is going to determine what design elements you use in your packaging. Define how your ideal customers are buying your product You’ll also want to consider how you’re going to sell your products. Are you selling online or in store? In small boutiques or in large retailers? Your design strategy might change depending on where you’re shelling your goods. Create a mood board for your brand A great thing to do before you start designing is to create a mood board for your brand. Pull together images, colors, advertisements and whatever else you feel embodies your brand personality; these will act as inspiration as you go through the design process. Let cosmetics packaging trends inspire you — If you need a little inspiration for your packaging design there’s no better place to start than looking at the latest cosmetics packaging trends. Once you know what’s currently trending, you can create packaging that caters to what’s important to your customers right now and that speaks to them in the right way. Remember that you want to pick a look that’s both modern and on trend, but also timeless and universally appealing, so your packaging design looks up-to-date for as long as possible. Makeup containers expand to a range of jars, bottles, pots, tubes, pens, compacts and liquid dispensing solutions. Each container offers a different design and solution; however, in the world of ‘cosmetic containers’, each product sits under the skincare, hair and beauty categories. This article will explore the different types of cosmetic containers available in the packaging industry. Raepak offers an extensive range of distinctive packaging products that enable us to explore innovations and keep an eye on exciting designs that are beneficial to the current market cycle. Cosmetic Jar Containers Lipstick containers in the form of jars are perfect for skin care and beauty products. Jars can contain gels, creams, lotions and deep skin cleansing products. Most jar containers come with a shive (a flat plastic shelf that fits inside the jar) used to keep the contents free from foreign debris (dust & germs). Moreover, jars are designed with airtight lids, which keep the contents fresh and ready for future use. Bottle containers can be produced as an airless recyclable container or a high-end luxury acrylic bottle. Acrylic bottles look fantastic with a matching jar and can store nourishing body lotions or face creams. PP airless bottles can also store creams and lotions. However, they are cheaper to produce and lighter in raw plastic material. Acrylic airless bottles are seen as a hybrid between both full acrylic and pp airless containers. Lip gloss containers in the form of pots can be funky, stylish, trendy or sophisticated. Small pots for cosmetic packaging tend to be perfect for eye serums, aromatherapy oils, lip balm, hand creams or hair products. Moreover, small plastic pots tend to be made with a wide range of different plastic types; PMMA/PETG/PP/AS & ABS. Using these plastic combinations helps with the shape and aesthetics of the final jar design. Cosmetic tube packaging containers come in different shapes, colours, materials and profiles. Cosmetic tubes are manufactured from high-quality materials, including AS, ABS, PETG, and PCTG. Each item is designed to work with makeup for the beauty & cosmetics industry. Furthermore, mascara containers are manufactured to have an excellent quality finish and be competitively priced. Cosmetic pen containers come in a beautiful range of styles and design. Each pen gives off a trendy vibe, is easy to use and fits perfectly into any purse or handbag. Cosmetic pen packaging is manufactured from high-quality materials and can be used for eyebrow, lip gloss, concealer, highlighters or liquid blushers. Compact containers are manufactured to be used with beauty and makeup products. Makeup powder is available in a vast range of colour palettes, and it helps give the wearer a look they desire. Compacts can be produced in a range of different styles included; square, round, rectangle and bespoke finishes. Cosmetic liquid dispensing containers come in different shapes, colours, materials and profiles. Furthermore, they can work well with other eyeshadow containers to offer brands a set of makeup and beauty products – offering a collection of different makeup and beauty product solutions that can help target a wider audience. Around one-fifth of the cosmetics market is made up of skincare products. With ￡920 million made from sales in 2018, non-medicated face care products (like moisturisers and exfoliators) were the best selling skincare cosmetics. Haircare and colour cosmetics also make up 18% and 16% of the market. Home is where the heart is, sure — but it's also where we live our beauty lives. So, we teamed up with the editors at AD to bring you tons of great design tips, trends, and tricks for making over your bathrooms, showers, and vanities. For more like this, click here. We've seen the overflowing shelfies and packed skin-care fridges, and we know firsthand how hard it can be to find the best makeup organizers to streamline your vanity. Limited space and a never-ending stream of exciting new product launches mean that our makeup and skin-care collections tend to grow much faster than the space we have to store it all. But your countertop no longer has to be a sea of beauty supplies and brushes, because we have the perfect solutions. Until the day when we all have Huda Kattan's glamorous bathroom set-up, we're opting for makeup organizers. These beauty organizers can help sort the many (many, many) products into efficient storage spaces that also happen to be easy on the eyes. The best news? Limited drawer space isn't even an issue since these gorgeous designs were made to be displayed. Not only do they provide optimal storage for your foundations, eye shadow palettes, lip products, and makeup brushes, but they're way more sanitary than throwing everything into a canvas bag and hoping nothing leaks. Next time you get that organizational itch, or are overcome by a Marie Kondo-inspired need to tidy, turn to one (or a few) of these storage solutions for your beloved beauty products. We've rounded up the best makeup organizers, including spa-like bamboo boxes, old-school Caboodles kits, clear plastic drawers, and more. There's something for every budget, every design taste, and every size bathroom. So go ahead — take the first step toward decluttering your vanity. Your beauty routine (and your countertop) will thank you. Climate change is hard to deny when we see how much change has happened in the time we’ve been practicing social distancing due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Last month, the carbon dioxide levels in New York City were 50% lower than they were in March 2019. Environmentalists are also tracking the air pollution above Wuhan province in China; it went down significantly for two months while everyone was in isolation and is now creeping back up. While we wrestle with these challenging times, many are starting to see what the human impact on our planet really looks like. You’ve likely heard the statistic that less than 11% of plastic is actually recycled properly in Canada. But did you also know that every year in the U.S.A., according to the Environmental Protection Agency, over two billion razors and refill blades are sent to landfill? Even worse, that stat is actually from a 1988 report, and that number has likely gone up exponentially since then. If you do math and consider that we have similar spending habits to our neighbours to the south, Canada has about 10% the amount of people as the U.S., so it would track that we throw away about 200 million disposable razors each year, at minimum. The above data notwithstanding, Canadian stats on how much plastic waste actually comes from the beauty and self-care sector are very elusive. Unless brands release their numbers on products sold, it’s hard to estimate the actual amount of plastic that ends up in landfills. Nonetheless, it’s safe to assume a lot of plastic gets thrown out because of our Sephora sprees. So what does all the doom and gloom have to do with you and your beauty and personal care habits? Well, there are a few ways to make sure that you’re doing the most you can when it comes to not adding to our already massive recycling problem. “One of the best ways to make sure that change happens is to make the companies understand that you really care about this issue,” says Vito Buonsante, plastics program manager at Environmental Defence Canada. “People can only do so much. It’s not really their responsibility to control the waste; it’s more on the company.” Buonsante recommends that we take a look at what we’re purchasing and start giving our money to brands that offer recycling programs or that use more easily recycled materials, like glass and tin, as opposed to plastic. If it’s absolutely necessary to buy plastic, check that the container has a 1 or 2 plastic rating, which can be found on bottles inside the recycle symbol. Those numbers are the most desirable for recycling programs (the system ranks up to a 7). “The problem with packaging in the beauty industry is that it is often made of mixed materials, therefore it becomes pretty difficult to recycle,” says Buonsante. In short, try not to buy cosmetic products with a plastic rating of 3 or higher. Strongly expressing your environmental concerns to your member of parliament and local city councillor is also helpful, says Buonsante, as is signing plastics-focused petitions and supporting environmental charities (like the Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society, Ecotrust Canada or any local conservancy groups) so they can continue to help push things forward. And now, while we’re taking social distancing measures very seriously, perhaps we can also help curb our plastic waste anxiety (because really, we don’t need another thing to fret about) by looking into the following ways to make our beauty routine a little more environmentally friendly.
Publish Date: 26-10-21
Description: Circular Knitting Machine The term knitwear includes two main textile techniques, weft and warp knitting (Spencer, 2001; Weber and Weber, 2008) (Table 7.1). After weaving, it is the most common method of manufacturing textile fabrics. Because of the interlooped structure of the knitted fabric, the properties are completely different to woven fabrics. The difference in weft and warp knitting originates in the way the needles move during the production and in the way the yarn is supplied. Weft knitting is a one fibre technique, which means that only one fibre is needed to build the stitches. The needles are moved separately, whereas the warp knitting needles are moved simultaneously. Therefore, all needles need the fibre material at the same time. For this reason, the yarn is supplied with the help of warp beams. The most important knitwear fabrics are circular knitted, warp knitted, flat-knitted fabrics and fully-fashioned fabrics. The specific features influencing yarn delivery on large-diameter single jersey circular knitting machine are high productivity, continuous knitting and a great number of simultaneously processed yarns. Some of these machines are equipped with a striper (yarn guide exchange), but only a few enable reciprocated knitting. Small diameter hosiery machines have up to four (or occasionally eight) knitting systems (feeders) and an important feature is the combination of rotary and reciprocal movement of the needle bed (beds). Between these extremes are the middle diameter machines for ‘body’ technologies. Figure 4.15 shows the simplified yarn supply system on a large-diameter double jersey circular knitting machine. Yarns (1) are brought from the bobbins (2), passed through the side creel to the feeder (3) and finally to the yarn guide (4). Usually the feeder (3) is equipped with stop-motion sensors for yarn checking. The knitted textile structure evolves from loops that are intermeshed row after row. The needle hook is responsible for the formation of a new loop with the supplied yarn. During the upward movement of the needle in order to catch the yarn to build a new loop, the old loop slides down the needle (Fig. 7.20). This causes the opening of the needle. The needle hook is now open to catch the yarn. The newly built loop is drawn through the old loop from the previous knitting circle. During this movement, the needle is closed. Now the old loop can be released as the new loop remains in the needle hook. The creel of the knitting machine controls the placement of yarn packages (bobbins) on all machines. Modern large-diameter circular machines use separate side creels, which are able to hold a large number of packages in a vertical position. Floor projection of these creels may differ (oblong, circular, etc.). If there is a long distance between the bobbin and the yarn guide, the yarns may be threaded pneumatically into tubes. The modular design facilitates the changing of the number of bobbins where required. Small-diameter machines with a smaller number of cam systems use either side creels or creels designed as integral to the machine. Modern creels make it possible to use double bobbins. Each pair of creel pins is centred on one thread eye (Fig. 4.16). The yarn of a new bobbin (3) may be linked to the end of the previous length of yarn (1) on bobbin (2) without stopping the machine. Some of the creels are equipped with systems for blowing off dust (fancreel), or with air circulation and filtration (filtercreel). The example in Fig. 4.17 shows the bobbins (2) in six rows, closed in a box with internal air circulation, provided by fans (4) and tubes (3). A filter (5) clears dust from the air. The creel can be air-conditioned. When the machine is not equipped with a striper, this can be supplied by yarn exchange on the creel; some systems enable the knots to be positioned in the optimal area of the fabric. The sinker is also important for the production of knitwear (Fig. 7.21). It is a thin metal plate, which can have different shapes. Each sinker is positioned between two needles and its main purpose is to help build the loop. Furthermore, it holds the loops that were formed in the previous circle down when the needle moves upwards and downwards to build the new loops. Both single set und double set machines also exist as Jacquard machines, which are needed for special designs. In these machines, the movement of each needle can be controlled from each cam. Common products that are produced with circular knitted fabric are T-shirts. For production, nearly every material can be used. The form varies from filament to staple fibre yarn. For special purposes, also monofilaments and wires are used. Machines that possess just one set of needles are only able to produce plain- knitted structures (Fig. 7.22). In these structures, one side of the fabric shows right loops and the other side rib loops. The following picture shows the loop structure of a plain knitted fabric. Yarn length control (positive feeding), when not used for patterned fabric knitting, must enable different yarn lengths to be fed into courses in different structures. As an example, in Milano-rib knit there is one double-faced course (1) and two single-faced (2), (3) courses in the repeated pattern (see Fig. 4.18). As a double-faced course contains twice as many stitches, the yarns must be fed at approximately twice the length per machine revolution. This is the reason why these feeders use several belts, individually adjusted for speed, whilst feeders using yarns of the same length are controlled by one belt. The feeders are usually mounted onto two or three rings around the machine. If a configuration with two belts on each ring is used (Fig. 4.5), yarns can be fed simultaneously at four or six speeds. The interlock structure was derived from the rib structure (Fig. 7.23). For the production of this kind of fabric, two needle sets are necessary and the needles need to be arranged in a different way. The loops are formed in two different directions (Fig. 7.24). The result is a fabric with smooth surfaces on both sides. This is due to the right loop structure on each side. The rib structure shows rib loops on both sides of the fabric. These fabrics can be produced using loop- or needle transfer. Normally, the machine for flat knitting has two stationary beds that are arranged in an inverted V formation. These beds possess tracks in which the needles can be moved. The fabrics produced by a flat-knitting machine are mainly coarse and intensely patterned. An advantage of flat-knitted products is that vertical and horizontal stationary threads can be integrated into the fabric. In this case, the fabric serves to fix these threads. Fabrics produced this way can be used for technical textiles. Common products produced on conventional flat knitting machines are outer-wear, such as jumpers that consist of staple fibre yarns. In small diameter circular knitting machine spare parts as well as flat bed knitting machine, generally one yarn is fed at a time to the needle for loop formation through the desired feeding system or feeder. However, in medium to larger diameter circular knitting machines, more number of feeders are arranged/accommodated at regular intervals for supplying more number of yarns to the needles simultaneously for achieving higher production. Each feeder produces separate course in each revolution of the machine. Production can also be increased by increasing the machine speed. But there is a limitation in increasing the machine speed as vibration, jerk, noise, yarn breakage and ultimately power consumption increase to a great extent at higher speed. So instead of increasing the machine speed, attempts are being made to increase the number of feeders in the machine. Machines are available with up-to 152 feeders for 42 inch diameter . Number of feeders on a circular machine depends on machine diameter, type of machine (plain, rib etc.), patterning facility and machine gauge. Number of feeder is mostly even number. Traditionally, loop cut circular knitting machine were used for producing pantyhose . In 2002 Karl Mayer introduced the RDPJ 6/2 warp knitting machines for making seamless, jacquard patterned tights and fish-net pantyhose. Karl Mayer’s MRPJ43/1 SU and MRPJ25/1 SU jacquardtronic raschel knitting machines can manufacture pantyhose with relief-like and lace patterns . Other developments in machinery were aimed to increase the efficiency, productivity and quality of pantyhose . Matsumoto et al. have also carried out some studies on the control of sheerness in pantyhose fabrics . They produced an experimental hybrid knitting system composed of two experimental covering machines and a circular knitting machine. Each covering machine had two sections of single covered yarn. The pantyhose samples were knitted under a constant condition, while the single covered yarns were produced by controlling the covering levels of 1500 turns per metre (tpm) and 3000 tpm in nylon yarn with a draw ratio of 2 = 3000 tpm/1500 tpm for the core polyurethane yarn. The lower covering level produced a higher sheer in the pantyhose. Four different pantyhose samples were produced with different covering levels of tpm in different leg regions. The results showed that the aesthetics and sheerness of pantyhose fabric were greatly influenced by changing the covering level of the single covered yarn in the leg parts, and the mechanical hybrid system could improve the aesthetic properties of pantyhose fabric. Weft knit fabrics are produced predominantly on cut pile circular knitting machine. The simplest of the two major weft knitting machines is a jersey machine. Generally, the terms circular knit and plain knit refer to jersey goods. The loops are formed by knitting needles and the jersey machine has one set of needles. Typical fabrics are hosiery, T-shirts, and sweaters. Rib knitting machines have a second set of needles at approximately right angles to the set found in a jersey machine. They are used for the production of double-knit fabrics. In weft knits, design effects can be produced by altering needle movements to form tuck and miss stitches for texture and color patterns, respectively. Instead of a single yarn, several yarns can be used in the production of these structures. This increases the design possibilities.
Publish Date: 25-10-21
Description: State of the art baby strollers The current work is an attempt to design and fabricate an ergonomic baby stroller with the latest state of the art features. A review on the design of baby strollers in the previous years was done ranging from the year 1980 to 2014. Based on the review it was found out that the idea of a foldable frame emerged since the early 1980s where people started to prioritize space saving. The use of electronics devices in strollers has not been properly implemented due to the bulkiness of the battery and the clutter mess of wires. Infant’s safety and comfort has always been the number one priority by designing a seat that is contoured to a baby’s spine, ultimately making baby’s growth much safer. In lieu of the current work, a harmonious prototype design was fabricated using Rapid Prototyping system. The idea was to fuse the usage of electronics with the stroller by inventing modular “plug and play” attachment devices that provide customizability to baby strollers which include headlights and cooling fan attachments. Besides that, the latest state of the art designs of the ergonomic baby stroller such as a ventilated back rest, on-board rocking baby chair, bidirectional push handle with ergonomic grip support, frame with integrated hooks for storing different types of “plug and play” attachments and hooks for attaching the foldable stroller to a typical standard shopping cart were implemented. Baby strollers are increasingly popular among the generations of baby boomers. Despite the popularity, the state of innovations in the design of baby strollers has plateaued in recent years. This article illustrates the evolution of the design of baby strollers from the year 1980 to 2014. Based on the review, it was found out that the idea of a foldable frame emerged since the early 1980s where users started to prioritize space saving. The use of electronics devices in strollers has not been properly implemented due to the bulkiness of the battery and the clutter mess of wires. In lieu of the current work, the idea was to fuse the usage of electronics with the 3 in 1 stroller by inventing modular “plug and play” attachment devices that provide customizability to baby strollers that include headlights and cooling fan attachments. The possibilities of various types of attachments will be endless. There is significant design knowledge of baby strollers since 1980 to 2014, in which, is reviewed to identify flaws and advantages of each design. There are many methods used to transport babies around and it varies among different cultures and countries. The idea of infant transportation emerges as multitasking and convenience becomes a necessity in parent’s everyday lives. Having an infant transportation made it easier for parents as babies are no longer needed to be carried by the parents or sit on top of their parents’ back. Babies that are lacking the ability to support their head still and upright are usually carried with slings. Cradleboards are popular among Native Americans to keep babies secure and comfortable (Garrett, McElroy, & Staines, 2002). The early stroller was developed by William Kent in 1733. William Kent designed the pockit stroller to be clam shaped and it was richly decorated and meant to be driven by a small animal such as a goat. Benjamin Potter Crandall saw the potential of this and was the first person in America to sell baby strollers commercially in 1830s. His son, Jesse Armour Crandall further improves the design by adding brake to carriages, designing a frame that is foldable, and a frame that receives devices such as an umbrella (Amato, 2004). Baby strollers that were built in the old days were usually made of wood and wicker with brass joint as seen in Figure 1. Those strollers are sometimes heavily decorated with carvings making it as a canvas for the work of art. Baby strollers then are usually named after a royal family such as Balmoral. In 1889, William Richardson design the first reversible baby stroller where the pusher can choose to face the baby or to face away from the baby. In order for this to be possible, the seat of the stroller is reversible. Richardson designed each wheel to move separately so the stroller can be easily be maneuvered. In 1920, prams are very popular with the advantage of larger wheels and the implementations of braking system into prams. The prams are deeper so the baby will have difficulty to climb out. The frame is also sturdier, lighter, and safer thanks to the improvement of designs over the years (Amato, 2004; Wall-Scheffler, Geiger, & Steudel-Numbers, 2007). In 1965, Owen Maclaren designed a light stroller where light material such aluminium is used as the frame. His design was then mass produced and more light strollers are available for people worldwide (Wall-Scheffler et al., 2007). In 1970, a more basic baby strollers was preferred that has a detachable seat (Amato, 2004; Wall-Scheffler et al., 2007). The design as seen in Figure 2(a) is invented by Kenzo Kassai. The baby stroller can be collapsed down but increases the size length forward. The stroller has a handle which can be pivoted to change the direction, either forward facing position or a back facing position with respect to the baby sitting in the stroller or carriage (Kassai, 1980). Forward facing push type is where the person pushes the carriage is facing the back of the baby in the stroller, and the back facing push type is where the person pushes the carriage views the face of the baby (Kassai, 1980). Figure 2(b) shows a design by Shinroku Nakao, Kouchi Kobayashi, and Kazao Moriya. It is stated as an ornamental design which similar to any other stroller in terms of practicality, but visually appealing (University of Cambridge, 2015). The design consists of a fixed chair, with a canopy that folds outwards. The front wheels have no rotating mechanism, which makes maneuvering a little less convenient (Nakao, Kobayashi, & Moriya, 1980). The invention presented in Figure 3(a), by Henry Fleischer shows a collapsible frame travel stroller. The collapsible frame uses slider slots and pin joint mechanism. The handle can be rotated to suit the user. The handle also pivots forward, which doubles as a mechanism to engage the folding action. The wheels are not rotatable and use simple axel to keep the wheels in place (Fleischer, 1981). As seen in Figure 3(b), the stroller design made by John P. Ettridge has a lower seat position where the toddler facing forward. The handle, seat, frame and undercarriage are interconnected by a linkage so that the components fold down towards the wheels as the wheels move towards each other (Ettridge, 1981). The design also has a footrest for the toddler. The design has a locking mechanism which keeps the stroller erected. The locking mechanism is conveniently placed at reachable height when standing. The stroller in Figure 4(a) has an adjustable backrest collapsible stroller that has a stroller frame formed in two matched side half-frames each whereof comprises three tubular elements, constituting respectively a rear leg, front leg and a stroller pushing arm. It was designed by Pietro Giordani. The construction of baby strollers of the collapsible or fold down type having an adjustable backrest (Giordani, 1982). Figure 4(b) shows a mechanism for adjusting the height of the handles of a pocket stroller, consists of two telescopic tubes in which, one sliding in the other and the handle connected to one tube. The spring with two arms with a V-shape fixed on the inside the inner tube. It was designed and drawn by Giuseppe Perego. The handle can be secured in place with notches that has different levels of elevation (Perego, 1982a). Another design also made by Giuseppe Perego which enables the stroller to be folded from side to side. It is made possible by placing linkages that holds the left and the right frames together as shown in Figure 4(c). The seat has to be made of soft material in order to be folded properly. This design features a rotatable front wheels and lockable back wheels (Perego, 1982b). The stroller designed by Maurice-Claude Duvignacq has an inclinable support for the seat, connected to a frame which can be folded as shown in Figure 5(a). The seat is made of sling-like manner, permanently connected to the frame and it is reversible. The hind legs are able to articulate and be fold to form a flat folded position (Duvignacq, 1983).
Publish Date: 25-10-21
Description: How Scooters Are Becoming Millennials’ Extreme Sport of Choice Pedestrians on the sidewalks of downtown Chicago hold up cellphone cameras, drivers honk in frustration and the police don’t quite know what to do. It’s not every day that 300 young scooter riders flood the streets, ignoring red lights and turning a loading dock into a temporary stadium – to the dismay of at least one exasperated business owner. It’s called a street jam, where riders flock from all over the world to shred a city, performing tricks and causing the same type of mayhem more usually associated with skateboarders. For those who grew up during the Razor-scooter boom in the early aughts, it’s hard to see a GAS scooter as much more than a fad, let alone a symbol of rebellion, but that stereotype doesn’t exist for the younger generation. Eighteen years after the release of the first Razor, scooters have come of age, spawning a uniquely millennial subculture with the same disruptive spirit as skateboarding – minus the steep learning curve. And according to many scooter riders, it’s actually overtaking skateboarding in popularity. “I’ve seen less and less skateboarders over the years,” says Devin Szydlowski, a 17-year-old semi-pro rider who traveled from San Luis Obispo, California, to take part in the Chicago Jam in August, one of the largest in the U.S. “It depends on the park, but we have the majority. There’s more scooter riders than skateboarders. We’re targeting younger kids, whereas skateboarding is targeting older kids.” A study on Statista.com by the Outdoor Foundation backs up his observation: The number of skateboarders in the U.S. decreased from 10.1 million to 6.4 million between 2006 and 2016, with an even more dramatic drop among skaters age six to 17. “It’s huge in other countries,” says Logan Fuller, a 25-year-old whose baggy, torn jeans and mischievous eyes look straight out of a Nineties issue of Thrasher magazine. He’s one of the best known scooter riders at the jam and is capable of grinding down a 22-stair handrail. Fuller is based in Maryland but basically lives on the road, traveling from jam to jam, supported by sponsorships and contest winnings. “I just went to Russia and France for street jams, they’re crazy. There’s, like, a thousand people,” he says. Starting at Grant Park Skate Park, the riders at the Chicago Jam – most of whom look under 18 – critical-mass through downtown, stopping along the way to grind down rails and spin scooters around their heads like helicopters. As with skateboarding, the chance of landing a trick is relatively low and the probability of racking yourself on a rail dangerously high. The event is totally rogue, with no permits and no Internet trail outside social media. Historically, it was organized by a prominent scooter manufacturer, but this year it grew too large for a business to carry the legal liability should (or when) the cops arrive. It’s so loosely planned that there’s not even a route map; organizers simply direct the mob using a megaphone. The best tricks win prize money, crucial since many of the top street EEC 50 Scooter riders backpack across the country for months at a time. But what’s more important than money is the opportunity to put faces to Instagram names. After the jam, kids gather in a warehouse to watch the premiere of a scooter film, buy scooter art prints and mosh to a performance by Atlanta rapper KZ, whose Instagram features as many photos of him on a scooter as in the studio. There’s a rebellious spirit to the gathering, and half the young riders seem like the type to sneak cigarettes between classes – but good luck asking any of them for a lighter. After all, this is the vaping generation. Skateboarding’s roots lie in 1960s surf culture, but push scooters originated as much more of a kids’ toy. The image started to change when Razor launched its insanely popular “Pro” model in 2000. The founder owned a toy company and saw that scooters had become trendy as transportation for Japanese businessmen in Tokyo, thus the brand’s initial retail partner: The Sharper Image (sticker price: $149). They sold at a pace of one million units per month for the first six months. Razor soon realized that scooters could become a new action sport and began to invest in building a community. In 2001, they offered a $1,000 prize for the first person to land a backflip and created the first touring team of riders. “We started putting on competitions locally and then a national tour,” says Ali Kermani, a skateboarder who helped Razor cultivate its extreme-sports program. “We’d go all over the place to skate parks that had strong scooter scenes, like the Incline Club in New Jersey and Skate Barn West in Washington . Then the first street jams started happening in New York.” Even though the sport isn’t recognized by the X-Games and no Tony Hawk figure has propelled it to the mainstream, athletes are innovating at an unprecedented pace. The most groundbreaking trick in skateboarding history is likely Hawk’s 900 at the 1999 X-Games, the result of nearly 50 years of skating progression. Scooter rider KC Corning landed one in 2004, showing how quickly the sport is evolving. “Scootering is the first sport that developed through the Internet, so we were able to build a whole industry in just a few years,” says Andrew Broussard, considered by many to be the godfather of scootering. He landed his first tailwhip on July 4th, 2001, and became hooked. While still in high school, he launched Scooter Resource, a message board that for the next decade would be the website of record for the community. Broussard also began hacking together custom scooters capable of taking more abuse, a business originally branded Scooter Resource in 2006, before being renamed Proto EEC 125 Scooter in 2008. The company doubled its revenue for six years straight, its growth only slowing once a rush of other companies entered the market. A rift exists between “park” and “street” brands, with street riders preferring upstart, rider-owned companies like Proto and TSI to corporate operations like Fuzion (available at Walmart). Scooters are modular, which has created a marketplace for component-specific companies like River Wheel Co. and Tilt, which produces nearly indestructible wheels, decks, forks and even the clamps that connect the parts. Scooter riders (or often their parents) drop up to $700 on pro-level rides, a sharp contrast to the costs of earlier models. The lexicon of tricks grew and was cataloged on Scooter Resource with specific credits for the pioneers behind each move. Because a scooter has handlebars like a BMX bike and a deck like a skateboard, it’s a hybrid capable of incorporating tricks from each with a much quicker learning curve, which is undoubtedly part of why it appeals to a younger crowd. “When you first start out skating, you can’t just ollie right away, you have to practice for six months,” says Szydlowski. “On a scooter, a bunny hop takes, like, a day to learn. Or an hour.” Today’s riders mainly find inspiration on YouTube. It’s resulted in underground scooter celebrities like the Funk Bros – Corey and Capron Funk – who are far from household names but boast 3.5 million subscribers. Scooters still play a part in their videos, but they’re now known mainly as Jackass-style pranksters (who can land triple front flips). Ryan Williams, a well-known rider of both scooters and BMX bikes, has 950,000 Instagram followers. But despite these riders’ huge followings, their popularity leaves little trace outside social media. The rest of the community is the same; nearly everything happens on Instagram or Facebook. According to Tommy Daddono, one of the organizers of the Chicago Jam and a founder of scooter manufacturer Outset Select, his event is one of the most popular street jams in the world, but it was un-Googleable until a week after the dust had cleared. Since pro-level scooters are so costly, many of the kids come from affluent backgrounds. Despite this, the scene feels decidedly DIY. Riders dress with a mix of grungy skater gear and a touch of Internet irony. One middle-school rider in Chicago wore a black cap with small text reading “Link in Bio.” Just like skateboarders, shredded jeans and dirty Vans are the style, but unfortunately for the burgeoning scene, it takes more than just streetwear to convince skateboarders who came of age during Razor’s initial boom that scooters are cool. Landing a backflip at a skatepark definitely turns heads, but a combination of entitlement and inexperience has made most scooter riders a bane to skateboarders, inline skaters and BMX riders. “There’s a stigma because of all the little kids,” says Daddono. “Every skateboarder will tell you that don’t look where they’re going, they’ll ride in front of you. They don’t have the etiquette yet.” Many simply never learn, which Broussard credits to a lack of guidance from older kids. “Skaters will complain about it, but they’ll never go up to 125cc 150cc Scooter riders and explain why what they’re doing is dangerous or bad park etiquette,” says Broussard. “But if it’s a young skateboarder, they’ll give them pointers and help them out. It’s a hypocritical attitude.” Pioneering riders like Daddono, 24, and Broussard, 31, turned to scooting because they felt skateboarding’s street credibility died with its commercial boom. Buying a board at the mall wasn’t rebellious. Instead, early scooter riders dug through garage sales for dollar scooters, took them to skate parks and rode them until they were literally destroyed – typically about an hour. “Skateboarding used to be anti-establishment, but now if you wear skate clothing, you’re trendy,” says Broussard. “Scooters started punk-rock. The older generation couldn’t afford skateboards or BMX bikes, but we could dumpster-dive for scooters.” “Every skatepark I’ve been in, there’s always a skateboarder with a chip on their shoulder and are super mad,” says Szydlowski. “Skateboarders are trying to make themselves feel better, because they know that their sport is dying in a sense.” Although events like the Chicago Jam appeal to a younger audience, it’s the relatively older kids who play the starring roles. Mike Hohmann, a 22-year-old with frayed Kurt Vile hair, is a good bet to win prize money at any jam. He’s based in Florida but has spent the past six months couchsurfing between events across the country. In May, he won several hundred dollars for grinding a 30-foot rail called the Green Monster in Austin and had a similar payday in Chicago for landing a backside 360 bar twist down a dozen steps at Grant Park. Once Hohmann’s cash runs dry, he’ll return to Florida to work a pair of minimum-wage jobs to save for his next trip. “It’s the community I love. It doesn’t matter who you are, what you are, everyone’s a brother here,” says Hohmann. Scant documentation of the community has emerged outside social media, but the scene does have historians. One is Dylan Kasson, a professional rider for Proto who has photographed scooting for a decade and hosts a popular podcast, Tandem. He’s produced several photo books and is compiling a larger survey of the sport that he hopes to publish under the title The Scene. “Scootering is so new that it’s still in that stage where there’s a lot of untapped potential,” says Kasson. “Videos are the most important thing. That’s how people realize new tricks are possible.” As documentation of the sport grows, so does the industry around it. As with skateboarding, apparel companies like Sky High have formed to serve the subculture. The 11th annual Scooter Con in San Diego boasted 1,500 attendees, and in October, Vault Scooters hosted the first-ever invitational competition, called Sovereign of Street, which had a prize pool of $11,000. Scooters are also a big part of Nitro Circus, an internationally touring stadium event with an emphasis on daredevil mega-ramps (it’s where Capron Funk landed that triple front flip). Even though it’s still a fresh industry, it might already be getting too mainstream for Broussard, who fears the popularity could ruin the rebellious character, just like with skateboarding.”The founding generation of scooter riders is drastically different than the current generation,” he says. “We rode because after the Razor boom, it was not trendy. We were experimental. Now, some kids spend more time accessorizing their electric scooter than riding them.” Rebelliousness was certainly on display in Chicago, however. It’s hard to call a mob of 300 kids riding into oncoming one-way traffic anything but daring. They were not only endangering their own bodies by running red lights and hurling themselves down stairs, but also destroying public and private property. The Most Disorderly Conduct Award went to a teenager who climbed to the top of a 20-foot wall overlooking a loading dock, then launched himself off it with a sinister grin, landing on the roof of a parked van and nearly causing the roof to cave in.
Publish Date: 22-10-21
Description: 8 Benefits of Owning a Dehumidifier If you commonly get allergies, you know that they can get rather miserable at times. When you live in a humid climate, there are many triggers for these things—dust mites, mold, mildew, and seasonal allergies. If you find that you are suffering a lot, a good dehumidifier can help–in more ways than one. Here are some benefits of a dehumidifier and how to choose the right one for you. Allergy Triggers Thrive in Humidity Many of the most common allergy triggers, especially dust mites, mold, and mildew, thrive in humid environments. Whether you live in a humid climate, or you just have a living space that tends to be more humid, you may be suffering from these things. Small living spaces with limited ventilation, such as bathrooms or kitchens in a small apartment or basement apartments, are common areas where moisture can build up, even in dry climates. Mold allergies are also a significant contributor to childhood asthma, which can be a debilitating and costly disease for children who develop it at a young age. This article expands on some of the dangers that allergens present when they are in your home. Benefits of a Dehumidifier There are several benefits to getting a commercial dehumidifier in your home, basement, apartment, or office space. Dehumidifiers reduce humidity levels, making your home less hospitable to allergens such as dust mites, mold, and mildew. They are not disruptive to your daily life, and run quietly and efficiently in the background without most people even noticing. Dehumidifiers help reduce odors that can accompany mold and mildew in your home—getting rid of that “musty” or “rotting” smell. These devices help to reduce the possibility that you will develop mold on your clothing, furniture, and other linens (such as curtains or bed sheets). Dehumidifiers reduce irritation to your skin and your respiratory system, allowing you to breathe easier and feel comfortable in your home. A less humid environment in your home means clothing will dry faster, breads and cereals will remain fresh longer without getting stale, and you won’t find signs of rust or corrosion on things like computer equipment, electronics, and tools. Running a dehumidifier helps reduce dust in your home, so you won’t have to clean as often. A dehumidifier also lowers energy costs because it helps your air conditioner run more efficiently. When the air in your home is more humid, the A/C must do the function of cooling the air and removing moisture, which means it has to work harder. This also causes your A/C to wear out sooner, which means you will need to replace and repair it more often. In addition to suffering from constant symptoms of allergies, you may want to consider a industrial dehumidifier if you have some obvious signs of high humidity in certain rooms or areas of your home, including: Water stains on the walls or ceilings of your home High humidity rooms with poor ventilation or no ventilation (especially in areas like bathrooms that have no windows) Frequent condensation on the windows in certain areas of your home Small black spots (mold spores) growing on the walls or in areas with high humidity, such as the bathtub or shower Must or mildew smells You may also want to consider a dehumidifier if you live in an apartment building, since mold and mildew spores can travel through ventilation systems, and can build up in the walls between apartments. Even if you keep your living area clean, these allergens from other areas of the building can be harmful to yours and your family’s health. Choosing a Dehumidifier There are several different options when it comes to dehumidifiers, and the one you choose depends on the space in which you plan to use it, as well as the humidity levels. There are small capacity models for a single small room, large capacity models for larger areas such as a large room, basement, or an apartment, and there are whole-house models available as well if you live in a very humid climate, you suffer from significant allergies, or you have a large home. For more specific and unique needs, consider purchasing a dehumidifier with special features. Getting a dehumidifier can help you live a healthier, happier life, so if you are suffering from allergies and other symptoms, the answer to the question of whether you should own a dehumidifier is probably yes. Find out more about the different models and options available, and see which one will fit your budget and help you get clean, healthy air in your home. If you live close to the equator or near a coastal region, you probably hear your local weatherman say the word "humidity" all too often. But no matter where you are, you've surely experienced it -- that muggy, heavy feeling that fills the air, often when it's rainy, foggy or hot outside. It can make your hair frizzy and may seem to dampen everything, including your mood. When people complain about humidity, for the most part they're talking about relative humidity. Depending on temperature, air can hold a fixed amount of water vapor; relative humidity is the ratio of actual vapor in the air to this fixed amount. For example, at a temperature of 68 degrees Fahrenheit (20 degrees Celsius), one cubic meter (35 cubic feet) of air can hold about 18 grams (.6 ounces) of water. This would be a state of saturation, otherwise known as 100 percent relative humidity. That's a lot of jargon to describe a level of humidity that, for many people, can feel extremely uncomfortable. When this humidity seeps into your home, it can make rooms feel stuffy and perhaps even smell musty. Beyond these superficial discomforts, too much humidity can have some more serious disadvantages, too. An overly humid home can lose its structural integrity, attract pests like silverfish and centipedes, and even make you sick. In an average home in which the temperature is 68 degrees Fahrenheit, the relative humidity should ideally be between 30 and 50 percent. If you're struggling to reach that range, a dehumidifier may come in handy. Dehumidifiers remove excess moisture from the air, improving the comfort and health of your home. In this article, you'll learn what types of dehumidifiers are available and how you can get the best results out of the ceiling mounted dehumidifier you have. But first, read on to next page to find out exactly how a dehumidifier does its job. Imagine enjoying a soda during a particularly warm day. When you pick up the can, you might notice that it's wet -- there's moisture on the outside. Why is that? As air loses heat, it also begins to lose its ability to retain moisture; the colder surface pulls and collects water from the warmer air, creating condensation. Your dehumidifier does pretty much the same thing. Most dehumidifiers can be broken down into five component parts: FanCompressor -- This compresses and expands a refrigerant gas like freon to cool the dehumidifier's coils. (See How Air Conditioners Work for a more detailed explanation of this cycle.) Reheater -- This captures and collects heat that the cooling process generates. Compressor cooling coils Reservoir How do all these parts fit together to pull moisture from the air? It's fairly simple, but very effective: A fan collects air from the surrounding area and pulls it into the dehumidifier. As the air passes through, it comes into contact with the dehumidifier's cooled coils. These coils use condensation to pull moisture from the air. The collected moisture remains on the coils and drips into the dehumidifier's reservoir. The dehumidifier reheats the air and exhausts it back into the room. A dehumidifier usually has a removable plastic bucket for a reservoir; most buckets also have a place where you can hook up a hose so the collected water can drain straight into a floor drain or pump. This frees you from having to remember to dump out the water. But don't worry too much about the reservoir overflowing -- home dehumidifier also have an automatic shut-off. If you're using a dehumidifier in extremely moist conditions, however, or if you need to keep your dehumidifier on all the time, you should look into a unit with a built-in condensate pump, which regularly pumps water out of the unit's reservoir rather than simply relying on gravity to empty it as a hose does. Many dehumidifiers also have a humidistat, which allows you to set your desired level of relative humidity. A humidistat has two parts: a sensing element and a relay amplifier. The sensing element includes two alternate metal conductors, and changes in relative humidity will cause electrical resistance between those conductors. The relay amplifier measures this resistance and sends a signal to turn the dehumidifier on or off. These basic components add up to a device that may make your home feel a whole lot better. Now that you know the basics of dehumidifier technology, it's time to learn about different kinds of dehumidifiers. Which one may be right for you? Read on to find out. While refrigerative dehumidifiers may be the most well-known, desiccant dehumidifiers also do a great job of keeping a space nice and dry. True to their name, these dehumidifiers pull in air and pass it over a desiccant material such as silica gel. Desiccants naturally absorb moisture -- that's why you'll find little packets of silica gel in new shoes or electronic goods. Because desiccant dehumidifiers don't need to cool air before dehumidifying it, this technology is really ideal for sub-zero conditions. Since the technology behind them is so simple and effective, dehumidifiers mostly vary in size and strength. Portable dehumidifiers are the kind that you usually see in the home improvement aisle; they're often plastic, relatively cheap and very lightweight. They're designed to be most effective in smaller spaces like a bedroom or kitchen. Restoration humidifiers are heavy-duty machines that can withstand harsh conditions -- they're usually used to repair heavy water damage caused by hurricanes or other natural disasters. The largest models on the market, whole-house dehumidifiers, usually augment a home's existing heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system. You'll have to hire a professional to install one of those. Some manufacturers have also created specially sized crawlspace dehumidifiers to address the humidity in storage areas and powerful dehumidifiers that are targeted toward the high humidity created by some indoor pools and spas. Whichever kind of dehumidifier you choose, it may help make your home a little greener. Read on to find out how. A portable dehumidifier can consume 160 kilowatt hours per month (kWh) -- that's more than your refrigerator eats up. However, it does burn less energy than the average air conditioner, which tears through about 300 kWh per month. Also, since excessive relative humidity makes us perceive temperature as being higher than it is, keeping your home drier may lead you to reach for the thermostat less, which could result in lower energy consumption overall. To really save on your utility bills and diminish your carbon footprint, work on maximizing your dehumidifier's efficiency. Don't keep it on all day, set the humidistat at a reasonable level (50 percent rather than 30 percent), and keep your doors and windows closed when it runs. Most dehumidifiers discharge air from the top of the machine, but if yours does not have top-mounted discharge, make sure that it's placed well away from walls and furniture to keep air circulating freely. Keep it away from sources of excessive dust or dirt, since this can very quickly clog the machine. For that matter, be sure to check and clean your dehumidifier's filter regularly -- this will help ensure that it's operating as efficiently as possible. In addition to saving energy, you also might be able to recycle the water that your dehumidifier collects. The water that shows up in your dehumidifier's bucket is considered greywater. That means it's not suitable for drinking, but can be great for watering houseplants and flowers, since it's less salty than tap water. However, you should check first to see if there are any restrictions on using greywater in your area. While the benefits of dehumidifier ownership are many, there are some potential downsides, too. For one thing, cost may be an issue. Dehumidifiers can be somewhat pricey -- many models sell for more than $150. Or you may just object to having a bucket of standing water sitting around in your home. No matter what your reservations are, it's worth figuring out if you really need a dehumidifier before you take the plunge and buy one. Read on for some tips that may help you make that decision. Do you need a dehumidifier? Start by taking a look around your home. The most noticeable symptoms of excessive humidity may include wet stains on your walls and ceilings, rotting and weakened wood, mold and fungus, condensation on your windows, peeling wallpaper, blistering paint, and a generally musty, stuffy feeling. In addition to those somewhat obvious signs of humidity, there are also some more subtle conditions you can watch out for. For example, you may want to look into a purchasing a dehumidifier if your doors, cabinets or windows are sticking, or if your floors are especially creaky. When wood absorbs moisture, it swells. This pushes apart joints, loosens screws and nails, and generally compromises your home's strength. While your noisy stairs might be a simple nuisance now, if humidity is the underlying issue, your problems could get worse. Dehumidifiers can also help mitigate the effects of common allergies to dust mites, fungus and mold; if the air in your home is excessively moist, it can encourage the growth of these allergens. Even if you don't have allergies, preventing mold growth is a good reason to consider getting a dehumidifier. Mold only requires a bit of moisture to grow, and it can set up shop in your home as soon as one of its airborne spores finds a hospitably damp surface. A mold problem in your home can cause serious illness. And once it shows up, mold is a pain to eradicate and can permanently stain or damage whatever it's decided to live on. The easiest strategy is to just keep it from showing up at all. You can also use a dehumidifier to discourage insects from moving in with you. Roaches, silverfish, spiders and centipedes all love a moist environment. Keeping the air in your home relatively dry will drive away those unwanted tenants. Additionally, if you've got a cold or a particularly bad, congested cough, using a dehumidifier may free up your breathing and help you sleep better at night. As you can see, there are plenty of good reasons why you might consider using a dehumidifier. To find out more about these devices and related topics, follow the links on the next page.
Publish Date: 22-10-21